In broad terms, there are two main types of sailing, namely, the Rhumb Line sailing and the Great Circle sailing.

## What is Mercator sailing method?

Mercator Sailing is another method of Rhumb Line Sailing. It is used to find the course and distance between two positions that are in different latitudes from the large D. Lat. and distance. It is similar to plane sailing, except that plane sailing is used for small distances.

## What is the importance of using Mercator sailing in calculating for course and distance?

Charts used on board ships generally are Mercator charts. On these charts bearings, courses and distances can be directly read off or plotted on the charts. For calculating course and distance between two given points on surface of the earth, the Mercator sailing formula is more accurate than plane sailing formula.

## Where is DMP in Mercator sailing?

Mercator Sailing Formula

- Solving for difference in latitude (DLAT) Lat1 = 18° 54′ N. …
- Solving for the difference in longitude (Dlo) Long1 = 073° 00′ E. …
- Solving for Meridional Parts in each latitude and the difference in meridional parts (DMP). …
- We can now solve for the course. …
- Solving now for the distance.

## What is best advantage of Mercator sailing?

The advantage of a Mercator chart is that meridians and parallels cross each other at right angles to form a rectangular grid. This means a straight-line course through the water can be plotted as a straight line on the chart — something that’s not possible on other projections.

## How is plane sailing calculated?

These relationships are now known as the plane sailing formulae, namely: departure = distance x sine course d. lat. =distance xcosine course.

## How is Dlat calculated?

Finding Difference of Latitude(DLAT)

- When the two latitude have LIKE names(both North or both south) subtract the lesser latitude from the greater.
- 2.In naming DLAT with like names it is reckoned from the equator towards the poles( Lat. …
- When the latitude have unlike names,add the two latitudes.

## What is parallel sailing?

Parallel sailing is the interconversion of departure and difference of longitude when a vessel is proceeding due east or due west. … It is similar to plane sailing, but uses meridional difference and difference of longitude in place of difference of latitude and departure.

## Which function is needed to determine the distance in Mercator sailing?

RE: Mercator Sailing: Course and Distance

The following program MERCATOR calculates the course direction and distance in miles given two pairs of latitude (north/south) and longitude (east/west). Conversion to arc minutes will be required during calculation.

## Why Mercator chart are most often use in marine navigation?

This projection is widely used for navigation charts, because any straight line on a Mercator projection map is a line of constant true bearing that enables a navigator to plot a straight-line course. …

## What is the rhumb line in sailing?

A line, on the surface of the earth, which crosses the meridians at a constant angle is called a Rhumb Line (RL). An extended Rhumb Line will run from the Equator towards the geographic Poles as a spiral. … A Rhumb Line, passing the Equator on its way to the North Pole.

## What is middle latitude sailing?

[′mid·əl ¦lad·ə‚tüd ‚sāl·iŋ] (navigation) A method of converting departure into difference of longitude, or vice versa, when the true course is not 090° or 270° by assuming that such a course is steered at the middle latitude.

## Why is it important as a navigator to determine your ship’s arrival position?

The nature of the West Coast makes it very important that navigation is accurate. … Accurate charts so the navigator can find the position of the ship in latitude and longitude or in reference to the land or a hazard such as rocks and shallow water called shoals.

## What is the use of plane sailing?

Plane sailing (also, colloquially and historically, spelled plain sailing) is an approximate method of navigation over small ranges of latitude and longitude. With the course and distance known, the difference in latitude ΔφAB between A and B can be found, as well as the departure, the distance made good east or west.

## What is the difference between longitude and latitude?

Longitude lines run north-south and mark the position east-west of a point. Therefore, latitude is the angular distance east or west of the Prime Meridian. Lines of longitude run from pole to pole, crossing the equator at right angles.

## What is short distance sailing?

Short distance sailing is a term which is applied to sailing along a rhumb-line for distances less than 600 nautical miles.